By topic. Colonial history Economic history Military history. Events leading to World War II. Main article: Background of the Spanish Civil War. The Church was a frequent target of the revolutionary left in the Republic and in the War. Main article: Spanish coup of July Main article: Spanish Civil War, Initial Nationalist zone — July Nationalist advance until September Nationalist advance until October Nationalist advance until November Nationalist advance until February Last area under Republican control.
Main article: Republican faction Spanish Civil War. Main article: Nationalist faction Spanish Civil War. Further information: Corpo Truppe Volontarie.
Further information: Viriatos. Main article: International Brigades. Area under Nationalist control. Area under Republican control. Main article: Spanish Civil War, — Main article: Evacuation of children in the Spanish Civil War. See also: White Terror Spain. See also: Red Terror Spain. Main article: Spanish Revolution of Main article: White Terror Spain. For a more comprehensive list, see List of people of the Spanish Civil War. Political parties and organizations in the Spanish Civil War.
The Popular Front Republican Supporters of the Popular Front Republican Nationalists Francoist The Popular Front was an electoral alliance formed between various left-wing and centrist parties for elections to the Cortes in , in which the alliance won a majority of seats. It drew its main support from skilled workers and progressive businessmen. It drew its support from skilled workers, small businessmen, and civil servants. It controlled the autonomous government of Catalonia during the republican period. The two parties won the subsequent general election, but the PSOE left the coalition in It had majority support amongst urban manual workers.
Anarchist groups. The anarchists boycotted the Cortes election and initially opposed the Popular Front government, but joined during the Civil War when Largo Caballero became Prime Minister. Mujeres Libres Free Women : The anarchist feminist organisation. Founding part of ERC in , it sided with the Republican faction during the war.
Basque nationalists. Put its religious disagreement with the Popular Front aside for a promised Basque autonomy. International Brigades : pro-Republican military units made up of anti-fascist Socialist, Communist and anarchist volunteers from different countries. Formed in , the UME secretly courted fascist Italy from its inception.
Already conspiring against the Republic in January , after the electoral victory of the Popular Front in February it plotted a coup with monarchist and fascist groups in Spain. Many army officers, aristocrats, and landowners were Alfonsine, but there was little popular support. The Carlists were clerical hard-liners led by the aristocracy, with a populist base amongst the farmers and rural workers of Navarre providing the militia.
Spanish Civil War breaks out - HISTORY
Pelayos - militant youth movement, named after Pelayo of Asturias. Although they supported Franco's rebellion, the party was dissolved in , after most members and militants joined FE and Gil-Robles went to exile. The fascistised youth wing of the CEDA. In they suffered a drain of militants, who joined the Falange. History portal Spain portal War portal s portal Anarchism portal Fascism portal Communism portal Conservatism portal Liberalism portal Socialism portal.
Ground Warfare: An International Encyclopedia. Madrid: Marcial Pons. My Mission to Spain. El Terror Rojo New York: Penguin Books. The collapse of the Spanish republic, Origins of the civil war. Yale University Press, , pp. Franco: A personal and political biography. University of Wisconsin Press. Rivalry and revenge. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge University Press, , pp.
University of Wisconsin Pres. The Spanish Civil War. New York. Chapter Simone Weil: A Life. Schocken Books.
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Retrieved 6 June Retrieved on 2 July Penguin Books. Spain and the great powers in the twentieth century. London; New York: Routledge. Taylor, English History — pp. La guerra que gano Franco.
Madrid, Archived from the original on 11 August Madrid: La Esfera de los Libros. Heroes of the Alcazar. Archived from the original on 7 December Retrieved 24 June London: Guardian.
- The Score, the Orchestra, and the Conductor;
- The Spanish Civil War | Richard J Evans.
- Spanish Civil War - Wikipedia;
BBC News. The JAP salute, which consisted of stretching the right arm horizontally to touch the left shoulder enjoyed only relatively little acceptance. The gesture of the raised fist, so widespread among left-wing workers' groups, gave rise to more regimented variations, such as the salute with the fist on one's temple, characteristic of the German Rotfront , which was adopted by the republican Popular Army". The Splintering of Spain, pp. Gutenburg E. Columbia University Press. Retrieved 16 August Basque Children of '37 Association. BBC Wales. Retrieved 27 May The Dustbin of History.
Retrieved 29 May Ernest, Dupuy, Trevor N. Tomo III. C , International Encyclopedia of Military History, vol. Stanley G. Payne reduced his earlier estimate of , at most , "violent deaths" with , deaths from malnutrition which "must be added", Payne , p. The Economist.
Journal of Contemporary History. The New York Times. Retrieved 28 July Forensic Science International. Archived from the original PDF on 7 February Spain: a History. Raymond Carr. New York: Oxford University Press, Archived from the original on 9 March History of the Church. University Press of Kentucky.
Yale University Press. Military Overseas. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. Alpert, Michael . Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. Alpert, Michael Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. Beevor, Antony . London, England: Penguin Group. Benton, Gregor; Pieke, Frank N. The Chinese in Europe.
Retrieved 14 July Bieter, John; Bieter, Mark University of Nevada Press. Bolloten, Burnett The Spanish Revolution. University of North Carolina.
Borkenau, Franz London, England: Faber and Faber. Bowen, Wayne H. University of Missouri Press. Brenan, Gerald . The Spanish Labyrinth: an account of the social and political background of the Civil War. Buchanan, Tom Britain and the Spanish Civil War. The Spanish Republic and Civil War.
Cleugh, James London: Harrap. Cohen, Yehuda The Spanish: Shadows of Embarrassment. Brighton: Sussex Academic Press. Coverdale, John F. Uncommon faith: the early years of Opus Dei, — New York, NY: Scepter. Cox, Geoffrey The Defence of Madrid. London, England: Victor Gollancz. Dawson, Ashley New York, NY: Routledge. Derby, Mark Ealham, Chris; Richards, Michael The Splintering of Spain.
Graham, Helen The Spanish Civil War: A very short introduction. Hemingway, Ernest The Fifth Column. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. For Whom The Bell Tolls. New York: Scribner. Howson, Gerald Arms for Spain. New York, NY: St. Martin's Press. Jackson, Gabriel The Spanish Republic and the Civil War, — Princeton: Princeton University Press. Kisch, Egon Erwin The three cows translated from the German.
Translated by Farrar, Stewart. London, England: Fore Publications. Koestler, Arthur Dialogue with death. London, England: Macmillan. Kowalsky, Daniel Stalin and the Spanish Civil War. Majfud, Jorge The Humanist. Mittermaier, Ute Anne Neulen, Hans Werner In the skies of Europe — Air Forces allied to the Luftwaffe — And indeed women got military training and took up position on the front line. International Intervention on the Left The war aroused widespread passions across Europe and the world, helped by the active efforts of both sides to win international support.
Spanish Civil War
An International Brigade was formed in which a total of 35, men from all over the world served, together with some 10, medical and other civilian volunteers from abroad. This did a lot for morale on the Republican side. In practice the International Brigades were particularly poorly trained and equipped and were no substitute for professional soldiers.
The war was widely reported by well known figures like Ernest Hemingway and George Orwell. Far more important was military aid from the Soviet Union, which supplied 1, aircraft — which the Republican government had to purchase, like all the other equipment — tanks, maintained by Soviet advisers, 1, artillery pieces, half a million rifles, oil and other supplies.
It did not however provide military personnel; around a thousand Soviet agents and advisers were in Spain during the war, and increasingly they devoted their attention to suppressing the Trotskyite POUM, murdering its leader Andres Nin in June following armed clashes between Communists and POUM forces in Barcelona in May, and closing down anarchist collectives. By the start of there was a virtual civil war within the civil war between these forces. International Intervention on the Right Was Republican propaganda correct to view the civil war as part of an international struggle against fascism?
Certainly a home-grown fascist movement played an important part in the war on the rebel side. This was the Falange, a radical right-wing movement known officially as the Spanish Phalanz of the Assemblies of the National Syndicalist Offensive. Franco eventually brought the Falange under control and turned it into an arm of government, taking over the trade unions after the war was over.
True fascism, even in its Spanish variant, did not triumph with Franco, who in some respects, notably his close allegiance to the church, was a conservative rather than a fascist himself. There were certainly elements of fascist style in all this, such as the fascist salute, but the emphasis was as much negative as anything else, on smashing socialism and communism on protecting Spanish society and traditions from the grasping hand of Bolshevism.
Unlike Hitler and Mussolini he did not attempt any foreign conquests or try to inaugurate a new society or a new kind of human being. There were however alien hordes in Spain, which along with the International Brigade and the Russians internationalized the conflict on a major scale. The most numerous were the Italians, who provided 75, troop s together with aircraft, tanks, artillery pieces, a quarter of a million rifles, ten thousand machine guns, eight thousand motor vehicles of various kinds, and much more besides.
Mussolini saw intervention as an important way of securing Spain as an ally in his bid to found a new Roman Empire in the Mediterranean. Republican propaganda made the most of this, appealing to patriotic sentiment as well as revolutionary and democratic principles. In fact the Italians were not very effective and were badly defeated in March at the Battle of Guadalajara. More important were the Germans, who intervened not only to gain an ally to the south of France, itself ruled at this time by a Popular Front, but also to try out its newly built planes and arms.
Although it was a civil war, several foreign entities also joined the conflict. For different reasons closely linked to the European context of the time, the Republican side was supported by the Soviet Union and the European democracies, while the Nationalist side had the support of fascist Germany and Italy, which meant that the latter was better armed. The war was one of the hardest Spain has ever faced. After the Nationalist victory , a dictatorship ruled the country for almost 40 years, from to , when the Spanish dictator Francisco Franco died.
The only support Spain sent to Germany was a small group of volunteers. Spain suffered continuous international isolation during the entire Franco dictatorship, but it weakened over the years.