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More about Nitrogen Metabolism Nitrogen-fixing plants Metabolism. Plant Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Open print view. Mon 23 Sep closed deels verhuisd naar S5 ; mail naar webib ugent. Subject: Nitrogen Metabolism. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, APA: Foyer, C. Nitrogen metabolism in plants in the post-genomic era. These results suggest that higher temperature and light intensity in the mid-day promote carbon fixation, not protein synthesis. Additionally, a dramatic increase of free ammonium concentration and nitrate reductase activity were observed in the daytime, while the activities of glutamine synthetase, glutamate dehydrogenase, and glutamate synthase were slightly changed during the whole day.
These results also suggest that the protein synthesis is not significantly facilitated by the light and temperature, although high levels of the free ammonium and carbohydrates were exhibited in the day time. Transcriptome analysis in Arabidopsis demonstrated the circadian regulation of key transcripts involved in photosynthesis and starch metabolism, isoprenoid chlorophyll and carotene biosynthesis, phenylpropanoid flavonoid and anthocyanin biosynthesis, redox balance and the membrane transport associated with nitrogen, sulfur and sugar Dodd et al.
When compared to the middle-of-night time point , we obtained a large amount of differentially expressed genes at the times of , , , , and Later, we focused on the analysis of carbon and nitrogen metabolism- related differentially expressed genes, which were divided into eight groups: photosynthesis, TCA cycle, sugar transport, sugar metabolism, nitrogen transport, nitrogen reduction, amino acid metabolism, and nitrogen regulation.
Most of the down-regulated genes were involved in the sugar and amino acid metabolism, while most of the up-regulated genes were involved in the photosynthesis, sugar, and amino acid metabolism. Post-transcriptional regulation can result in rapid and durable responses to the environmental light and temperature. The first evidence showing the importance of post-transcriptional regulation in maintaining circadian rhythmicity was discovered in the single-celled green algae, Acetabularia , which could survive for several weeks after removing its nucleus, and continue to photosynthesize rhythmically in constant light Mergenhagen and Schweiger, ; Lakin-Thomas, Alternative pre-mRNA splicing and miRNA regulation are two processes that mediate most post-transcriptional regulation in response to environmental changes Bartok et al.
Recent studies demonstrated the importance of alternative splicing in mediating responses of circadian clock to temperature changes in Arabidopsis using a genome-wide approach Bieniawska et al. The results revealed the extensive changes in the splicing of many clock genes. It has also been reported that this alternative splicing regulation was present not only in Arabidopsis thaliana but also in Oryza sativa, Brachypodiumdistachyon and Populustrichocarpa , mono-, and di-cotyledonous species that diverged from a common ancestor — million years ago Lynch and Conery, ; Tuskan et al.
Additionally, there has been a growing awareness of the vital role played by miRNAs in regulating various aspects of circadian clock function. In our study, the miRNAs were analyzed in the samples of rice shoots harvested at the times of , , , , , and through small RNA sequencing. When compared to the mid-night time point , we obtained differentially expressed mature miRNAs at the times of , , , , and The expression level analysis showed that the four carbon and nitrogen metabolism-related miRNAs negatively regulated their target genes at most of the time points.
All authors read and approved the manuscript. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Supplementary Figure S1. The diagram of rice germination, planting, and harvesting. Supplementary Figure S2. The reads mapped to individual chromosome at the time of , , , , , and Supplementary Figure S3. Heatmap of the mapped genes at the time of , , , , , and Supplementary Figure S4. Functional categories of the mapped genes at the time of , , , , , and Supplementary Figure S5.
The alternative splicing events at the time of , , , , , and Supplementary Figure S6. Supplementary Figure S7. The size distribution of unique sRNA sequences. Supplementary Figure S8. Heatmap of the mature miRNAs at the time of , , , , , and Supplementary Table S2. Reads of mRNA sequencing in rice shoots at different time points. Supplementary Table S3. Mapped events of mRNA sequencing in rice shoots at different time points. Supplementary Table S4. Reads of small RNA sequencing in rice shoots at different time points.
Supplementary Table S5. Number of mature miRNA in rice shoots at different time points. Supplementary Table S6. Bao, A. Overexpressing of OsAMT , a high affinity ammonium transporter gene, modifies rice growth and carbon-nitrogen metabolic status.
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Accumulated expression level of cytosolic glutamine synthetase 1 gene OsGS1;1 or OsGS1;2 alter plant development and the carbon-nitrogen metabolic status in rice. The stable level of glutamine synthetase 2 plays an important role in rice growth and in carbon-nitrogen metabolic balance. Bartok, O. Adaptation of molecular circadian clockwork to environmental changes: a role for alternative splicing and miRNAs. Bieniawska, Z. Disruption of the Arabidopsis circadian clock is responsible for extensive variation in the cold-responsive transcriptome.
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