Manual Africa Environment Outlook: Our Environment, Our Wealth

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Liberia's year civil war illustrates the way a natural resource—timber—can be exploited to fuel a corrupt political regime.


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Another example is increased conflict in the Darfur region of Sudan, where "creeping desertification, unstable access to land and water, deforestation and local environmental governance" have increased competition for valuable resources p. Armed conflict accelerates the loss of infrastructure and degradation of resources, and reduces society's capacity for self-reliance.

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Diminished access to resources, on which many people base their livelihoods, compromises stability, disrupts social structures, and can lead to food insecurity, says the report: "Areas affected by conflict suffer annual [food production] losses of more than 12 percent" p. Conflict also uproots people from their homes and resources, more every year: "In , there were almost 2.

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By , this number had risen to 4. Combining Environmental and Economic Goals Cooperation through existing economic partnerships and environmental agreements can forge peace and foster development, according to UNEP: "It is becoming increasingly common to address sustainable development and environmental management in conjunction with other issues during peace negotiation processes" p.

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African countries have formed many regional and sub-regional cooperative institutions since the end of the colonial era. While regional economic communities are usually created to increase economic development, they also "reinforce sovereign equality, peace and security, democracy and the rule of law, and peaceful settlement of disputes" p. Institutions such as the African Union, formed in , integrate social, political, and economic issues to help African countries more effectively enter the global economy. Environment-based cooperative agreements such as the African Ministerial Conference on the Environment "mobilize political and technical support to address diverse environmental issues, such as land degradation and desertification, access to safe drinking water, and integrated water resource management" p.

Models of Environmental Cooperation Africa holds the second-largest number of river basins in the world; and joint management treaties and agreements around the region's natural water resources provide good lessons for building cooperative frameworks.

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AEO-2 cites the Nile Basin Initiative NBI as a prime example of building "transnational communities of scientists, civil society organizations, and other stakeholders" p. The NBI has sought to build trust by sharing scientific information and negotiating equitable use of the Nile River by its 10 riparian countries. The decision-making body developed under this agreement encourages cooperation, targets poverty eradication, and fosters economic integration.

Just as water resources may build transboundary cooperation, wildlife and biodiversity management hold the same potential to build capacity for sustainable economic growth.


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The Congo basin forest, UNEP observes, is "the second-largest forest in the world and plays an important role in climate regulation, as well as being a huge repository of biological diversity"—and covers a region emerging from a decade of bloody conflicts p. In the Congo partnership and other biodiversity and wildlife agreements, reducing poverty and strengthening the capacity of communities around these ecosystems is essential to ensuring sustainable—and peaceful—management of these important resources. Create Alert.

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Share This Paper. Figures and Tables from this paper. Figures and Tables. Citations Publications citing this paper. Vegetation and land cover change in the context of land degradation in sub-Saharan West Africa Yahaya Z.

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