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What's on the 6th floor? Issues Art Practical. Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh. Attack of the Pumpkin Spice Everything! Bay Area Art Quake. David Sumner, RIP 2 years ago. VRA NoCal. Fall Meeting 2 years ago. An interview with Dave Burkhart 3 years ago. Eleventh Stack. SF Art News. Cooley Landing — Linda Gass 3 years ago. Asian Art Museum Blog. Crossing Threshold: A Dance with Perception 4 years ago. Prelinger Library Blog. Didactic Ephemera 7 years ago. Calling for All Comments 8 years ago.

Theatre Bay Area Chatterbox. Allow Me to Introduce Myself From Bloom County to Mars: The exhibition catalog 8 years ago. What's New at the Internet Archive. Holiday Flicks 8 years ago. Music at the J. Thinker Blog. Behind the Scenes at the San Francisco Opera. Book Reviews. Books blog - The Guardian. Tips, links and suggestions: what are you reading this week? Today, recorder sizes are named after the different vocal ranges.

This is not, however, a reflection of sounding pitch, and serves primarily to denote the pitch relationships between the different instruments. Groups of recorders played together are referred to as "consorts". Recorders are also often referred to by their lowest sounding note: "recorder in F" refers to a recorder with lowest note F, in any octave. The table to the right shows the standard names of modern recorders in F and C and their respective ranges. Music composed after the modern revival of the recorder most frequently uses soprano, alto, tenor, and bass recorders, although sopranino and great bass are also fairly common.

The combination of these consorts is also possible. As a rule of thumb, the tessitura of a baroque recorder lies approximately one octave above the tessitura of the human voice type after which it is named. For example, the tessitura of a soprano voice is roughly C 4 —C 6 , while the tessitura of a soprano recorder is C 5 —C 7.

Modern variations include standard British terminology, due to Arnold Dolmetsch , which refers to the recorder in C 5 soprano as the descant and the recorder in F 4 alto as the treble. As conventions and instruments vary, especially for larger and more uncommon instruments, it is often practical to state the recorder's lowest note along with its name to avoid confusion.

Modern recorder parts are notated in the key they sound in. Parts for alto, tenor and contrabass recorders are notated at pitch, while parts for sopranino, soprano, bass, and great bass are typically notated an octave below their sounding pitch. As a result, soprano and tenor recorders are notated identically; alto and sopranino are notated identically; and bass and contrabass recorders are notated identically. Octave clefs may be used to indicate the sounding pitch, however usage is inconsistent.

Rare sizes and notations include the garklein , which may be notated two octaves below its sounding pitch, and the sub-contrabass, which may be notated an octave above its sounding pitch. Like their historical antecedents, modern recorder players frequently also play from parts written for other instruments, reading in a variety of clefs and transpositions, and must make appropriate choices of instrumentation.

The earliest known document mentioning "a pipe called Recordour" dates from As a result, it was frequently the performers' responsibility to read parts not specifically intended for the instrument and to choose appropriate instruments. When such consorts consisted only of recorders, the pitch relationships between the parts were typically preserved, however when recorders were combined with other instruments, octave discrepancies were often ignored.

Recorder consorts in the 16th century were tuned in fifths and only occasionally employed tuning by octaves as seen in the modern C, F recorder consort. To use modern terminology, these recorders were treated as transposing instruments: consorts would be read identically to a consort made up of F 3 , C 4 , and G 4 instruments.

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This is made possible by the fact that adjacent sizes are separated by fifths, with few exceptions. These parts would be written using chiavi naturali , allowing the parts to roughly fit in the range of a single staff, and also in the range of the recorders of the period. Three sizes of instruments could be used to play four-part music by doubling the middle size, e. F 3 —C 4 —C 4 —G 4 , or play six-part music by doubling the upper size and tripling the middle size, e.

The instruments from lowest to highest are called "great bass", "bass", "basset", "tenor", "alto", and "soprano".

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The alto in F 4 is the standard recorder of the Baroque, although there is a small repertoire written for other sizes. In modern usage, recorders not in C or F are alternatively referred to using the name of the closest instrument in C or F, followed by the lowest note.

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For example, a recorder with lowest note G 4 may be known as a G-alto or alto in G, a recorder with lowest note D 5 also "sixth flute" as a D-soprano or soprano in D, and a recorder in G 3 as a G-bass or G-basset. This usage is not totally consistent. Notably, the baroque recorder in D 4 is not commonly referred to as a D-tenor nor a D-alto; it is most commonly referred to using the historical name " voice flute ".

Recorders have historically been constructed from hardwoods and ivory, sometimes with metal keys. Since the modern revival of the recorder, plastics have been used in the mass manufacture of recorders, as well as by a few individual makers. Today, a wide variety of hardwoods are used to make recorder bodies. A recent innovation is the use of synthetic ceramics in the manufacture of recorder blocks. Some recorders have tone holes too far apart for a player's hands to reach, or too large to cover with the pads of the fingers.

In either case, more ergonomically placed keys can be used to cover the tone holes. Keys also allow the design of longer instruments with larger tone holes. Keys are most common in recorders larger than the alto. Instruments larger than the tenor need at least one key so the player can cover all eight holes.

Keys are sometimes also used on smaller recorders to allow for comfortable hand stretch, and acoustically improved hole placement and size. When playing a larger recorder, a player may not be able to simultaneously reach the keys or tone holes with the fingers and reach the windway with the mouth. In this case, a bocal may be used to allow the player to blow into the recorder while maintaining a comfortable hand position. Instruments with a single bend are known as "knick" or bent-neck recorders. Some newer designs of recorder are now being produced.

Recorders with a square cross-section may be produced more cheaply and in larger sizes than comparable recorders manufactured by turning. These modern designs make it easier to be heard in concertos. Finally, recorders with a downward extension of a semitone are becoming available; such instruments can play a full three octaves in tune.

In the early 20th century, Peter Harlan developed a recorder with apparently simpler fingering, called German fingering. A recorder designed for German fingering has a hole five that is smaller than hole four, whereas baroque and neo-baroque recorders have a hole four that is smaller than hole five. With German fingering, this becomes a simpler 0 4 — — —. Unfortunately, however, this makes many other chromatic notes too out of tune to be usable.

Some recorder makers produce instruments at pitches other than the three standard pitches above, and recorders with interchangeable bodies at different pitches. The recorder produces sound in the manner of a whistle or an organ flue pipe. In normal play, the player blows into the windway B , a narrow channel in the head joint , which directs a stream of air across a gap called the window , at a sharp edge called the labium C. The air stream alternately travels above and below the labium, exciting standing waves in the bore of the recorder, and producing sound waves that emanate away from the window.

Feedback from the resonance of the tube regulates the pitch of the sound. In recorders, like in all woodwind instruments, the air column inside the instrument behaves like a vibrating string, to use a musical analogy, and has multiple modes of vibration. These waves produced inside the instrument are not longitudinal waves, like those the ear perceives as sound, but rather stationary standing waves consisting of areas of high pressure and low pressure inside the tube, called nodes. The perceived pitch is the lowest, and typically loudest, mode of vibration in the air column.

The other pitches are harmonics , or overtones. Players typically describe recorder pitches by the number of nodes in the air column. Notes with a single node are in the first register, notes with two nodes in the second register, etc. As the number of nodes in the tube increases, the number of notes a player can produce in a given register decreases because of the physical constraint of the spacing of the nodes in the bore. On a Baroque recorder, the first, second, and third registers span about a major ninth, a major sixth, and a minor third respectively.

The recorder sound, for the most part, lacks high harmonics and odd harmonics predominate in its sound with the even harmonics being almost entirely absent, although the harmonic profile of the recorder sound varies from recorder to recorder, and from fingering to fingering. As in organ flue pipes , the sounding pitch of duct type whistles is affected by the velocity of the air stream as it impinges upon the labium. The pitch generally increases with velocity of the airstream, up to a point. Air speed can also be used to influence the number of pressure nodes in a process called over blowing.

At higher airstream velocities, lower modes of vibration of the air column become unstable, resulting in a change of register. The air stream is affected by the shaping of the surfaces in the head of the recorder the "voicing" , and the way the player blows air into the windway. Recorder voicing is determined by physical parameters such as the proportions and curvature of the windway along both the longitudinal and latitudinal axes, the beveled edges chamfers of the windway facing towards the labium, the length of the window, the sharpness of the labium i. The player is able to control the speed and turbulence of the airstream using the diaphragm and vocal tract.

The finger holes, used in combination or partially covered, affect the sounding pitch of the instrument.


At the most basic level, the sequential uncovering of finger holes increases the sounding pitch of the instrument by decreasing the effective sounding length of the instrument, vice versa for the sequential covering of holes. In the fingering , only the bell of the instrument is open, resulting in a low pressure node at the bell end of the instrument.

The fingering sounds at a higher pitch because the seventh hole and the bell both release air, creating a low pressure node at the seventh hole. Besides sequential uncovering, recorders can use forked fingering to produce tones other than those produced by simple sequential lifting of fingers. In the fingering , air leaks from the open holes 4,5,6, and 7.

The pressure inside the bore is higher at the fourth hole than at the fifth, and decreases further at the 6th and 7th holes. Consequently, the most air leaks from the fourth hole and the least air leaks from the seventh hole. As a result, covering the fourth hole affects the pitch more than covering any of the holes below it. Thus, at the same air pressure, the fingering produces a pitch between and Forked fingerings allow recorder players to obtain fine gradations in pitch and timbre.

A recorder's pitch is also affected by the partial covering of holes. This technique is an important tool for intonation, and is related to the fixed process of tuning a recorder, which involves the adjustment of the size and shape of the finger holes through carving and the application of wax. One essential use of partial covering is in "leaking," or partially covering, the thumb hole to destabilize low harmonics.

This allowing higher harmonics to sound at lower air pressures than by over-blowing alone, as on simple whistles. The player may also leak other holes to destabilize lower harmonics in place of the thumb hole hole 0. This technique is demonstrated in the fingering tables of Ganassi's Fontegara , which illustrate the simultaneous leaking of holes 0, 2, and 5 to produce some high notes. For example, Ganassi's table produces the 15th third octave tonic as the fourth harmonic of the tonic, leaking holes 0, 2 and 5 and produces the 16th as the third harmonic of the fifth, leaking holes 0 and 2.

On some Baroque recorders, the 17th can be produced as the third harmonic of the sixth, leaking hole 0 as well as hole 1, 2 or both. Although the design of the recorder has changed over its year history, notably in fingering and bore profile see History , the technique of playing recorders of different sizes and periods is much the same. Indeed, much of what is known about the technique of playing the recorder is derived from historical treatises and manuals dating to the 16th—18th century.

The following describes the commonalities of recorder technique across all time periods. In normal playing position, the recorder is held with both hands, covering the fingerholes or depressing the keys with the pads of the fingers: four fingers on the lower hand, and the index, middle and ring fingers and thumb on the upper hand. In standard modern practice, the right hand is the lower hand, while the left hand is the upper hand, although this was not standardized before the modern revival of the recorder.

The recorder is supported by the lips, which loosely seal around the beak of the instrument, the thumb of the lower hand, and, depending on the note fingered, by other the other fingers and the upper thumb. A practice documented in many historical fingering charts is the use of finger seven or eight to support the recorder when playing notes for which the coverage of this hole negligibly affects the sounding pitch e.

Larger recorders may have a thumbrest, or a neckstrap for extra support, and may use a bocal to direct air from the player's mouth to the windway. Recorders are typically held at an angle between vertical and horizontal, the attitude depending on the size and weight of the recorder, and personal preference. Pitches are produced on the recorder by covering the holes while blowing into the instrument. Modern terminology refers to the holes on the front of the instrument using the numbers 1 through 7, starting with the hole closest to the beak, with the thumbhole numbered hole 0.

At the most basic level, the fingering technique of the recorder involves the sequential uncovering of the holes from lowest to highest i. In practice, however, the uncovering of the holes is not strictly sequential, and the half covering or uncovering of holes is an essential part of recorder technique.

A forked fingering is a fingering in which an open hole has covered holes below it: fingerings for which the uncovering of the holes is not sequential. For example, the fingering is not a forked fingering, while 56 is a forked fingering because the open hole 4 has holes covered below it — holes 5 and 6. Forked fingerings allow for smaller adjustments in pitch than the sequential uncovering of holes alone would allow. For example, at the same air speed the fingering 5 sounds higher than but lower than Many standard recorder fingerings are forked fingerings. Forked fingerings may also be used to produced microtonal variations in pitch.

Forked fingerings have a different harmonic profile from non-forked fingerings, and are generally regarded as having a weaker sound. Forked fingerings that have a different tone color or are slightly sharp or flat can provide so-called "alternate fingerings". For example, the fingering and its slightly sharper forked variant Partial covering of the holes is an essential part of the playing technique of all recorders.

This is variously known as "leaking," "shading," "half-holing," and in the context of the thumb hole, "pinching". The primary function of the thumbhole is to serve as an octaving vent. When it is leaked, the first mode of vibration of the air column becomes unstable: i. In most recorders, this is required for the playing of every note higher than a ninth above the lowest note. The player must adjust the position of the thumb for these notes to sound stably and in tune. The partial opening of the thumbhole may be achieved by sliding or rolling the thumb off of the hole, or by bending the thumb at the first knuckle.

To partially uncover a covered hole, the player may slide the finger off of the hole, bend or roll the finger away from the hole, gently lift the finger from the hole, or a combination of these. To partially cover an open hole, the reverse is possible. Generally speaking, the partial opening of covered fingerholes raises the pitch of the sounding note while the partial closure of open fingerholes lowers the pitch. On most "baroque" modeled modern recorders, the lower two fingers of the lower hand actually cover two holes each called "double holes".

Whereas on the vast majority of baroque recorders and all earlier recorders these two fingers covered a single hole "single holes" , double holes have become standard for baroque modeled modern recorders. The open end of the bore facing away from the player the "bell" may be covered to produce extra notes or effects. Alternatively, in rare cases instruments may be equipped with a key designed to cover the bell "bell key" , operated by one of the fingers, typically the pinky finger of the upper hand, which is not normally used to cover a hole.

Fingerings with a covered bell extend the recorder's chromatic playable range above and below the nominal fingered range. The pitch and volume of the recorder sound are influenced by the speed of the air travelling through the windway, which may be controlled by varying the breath pressure and the shape of the vocal tract. The sound is also affected by the turbulence of the air entering the recorder. Generally speaking, faster air in the windway produces a higher pitch.

Thus overblowing a note causes it to go sharp whereas underblowing the note causes it to go flat. Knowing this fact and the knowledge of a recorder's individual tonal differences over its full range will help recorders play in tune with other instruments by knowing which notes will need slightly more or less air to stay in tune. The technique of inhalation and exhalation for the recorder differs from that of many other wind instruments in that the recorder requires very little air pressure to produce a sound, unlike reed or brasswind instruments.

Recorder breathing technique focuses on the controlled release of air rather than on maintaining diaphragmatic pressure. The use of the tongue to stop and start the air is called "articulation". In this capacity, the tongue has two basic functions: to control the start of the note the attack and the end, or the length of the note legato, staccato.

Articulations are roughly analogous to consonants. Practically any consonant that may produced with the tongue, mouth, and throat may be used to articulate on the recorder. Transliterations of common articulation patterns include "du du du du" using the tip of the tongue, "single tonguing" "du gu du gu," alternating between the tip and the back of the tongue, "double tonguing" and "du g'll du g'll" articulation with the tip and the sides of the tongue, "double tonguing".

The attack of the note is governed by such factors as the pressure buildup behind the tongue and shape of the articulant, while the length of the note governed by the stoppage of the air by the tongue. Each articulation pattern has a different natural pattern of attack and length, and recorder technique seeks to produce a wide variety of lengths and attacks using these articulation patterns. Patterns like these have been used since at least the time of Ganassi Mouth and throat shapes are roughly analogous to vowels. The shape of the vocal track affects the velocity and turbulence of the air entering the recorder.

The shape of the mouth and vocal tract affect are closely related to the consonant used to articulate. The player must coordinate fingers and tongue to align articulations with finger movements. In normal play, articulated attacks should align with the proper fingering, even in legato passages or in difficult finger transitions and the fingers move in the brief silence between the notes silence d'articulation created by the stoppage of the air by the tongue. Both fingers and the breath can be used to control the pitch of the recorder.

Coordinating the two is essential to playing the recorder in tune and with a variety of dynamics and timbres. On an elementary level, breath pressure and fingerings must accord with each other to provide an in-tune pitch. As an example of a more advanced form of coordination, a gradual increase in breath pressure combined with the shading of holes, when properly coordinated, results in an increase in volume and change in tone color without a change in pitch. The reverse is possible, decreasing breath pressure and gradually lifting fingers. Note 1: See the section Types of recorder concerning recorders in C or in F.

The range of a modern "baroque" model recorder is usually considered two octaves and a tone. Other notes outside this compass are less commonly used as they are normally harsher or out of tune. The numbers at the top correspond to the fingers and the holes on the recorder. The vast majority of recorders manufactured today are designed to play using these fingerings, with slight variations. Nonetheless, recorder fingerings vary widely between models and are mutable even for a single recorder: recorder players may use three or more fingerings for the same note along with partial covering of the holes to achieve proper intonation, in coordination with the breath or in faster passages where some fingerings are unavailable.

This chart is a general guide, but by no means a definitive or complete fingering chart for the recorder, an impossible task. Rather, it is the basis for a much more complex fingering system, which is still being added to today. Some fonts show miniature glyphs of complete recorder fingering charts in TrueType format. The earliest extant duct flutes date to the neolithic.

They are found in almost every musical tradition around the world. Our present knowledge of the structure of recorders in the Middle Ages is based on a small number of instruments preserved and artworks, or iconography, from the period. The first medieval recorder discovered was a fruitwood instrument "Dordrecht recorder" excavated in from the moat surrounding the castle Huis te Merwede "House on the Merwede " near the town of Dordrecht in the Netherlands.

The castle was only inhabited from to As the area was not disturbed until the modern excavation, the recorder has been dated to the period of occupation of the castle. The block has survived, but the labium is damaged, making the instrument unplayable. The instrument has tenons on both ends of the instrument, suggesting the presence of now lost ferrules or turnings.

Uncertainty regarding the nature of these fittings has hindered reconstruction of the instrument's original state. It has been dated to between and It has a cylindrical bore about The bore expands to Unusually, the finger holes taper conically outwards, the opposite of the undercutting found in Baroque recorders. The top of the instrument is damaged: only a cut side of the windway survives, and the block has been lost. A reconstruction by Hans Reiners has a strident, penetrating sound rich in overtones and has a range of two octaves. With the thumb hole and the first three finger holes covered, the reconstruction produces a pitch ca.

In the 21st century, a number of other instruments and fragments dated to the medieval period have come to light. The widely spaced doubled seventh hole persisted in later instruments. According to Virdung , the hole that was not used was plugged with wax. The classification of these instruments is primarily complicated by the fact that the seventh hole produces a semitone instead of a tone. As a result, chromatic fingerings are difficult, and require extensive half-holing.

These instruments share similarities with the six holed flageolet , which used three fingers on each hand and had no thumb hole. Anthony Rowland-Jones has suggested that the thumb hole on these early flutes was an improvement upon the flageolet to provide a stronger fingering for the note an octave above the tonic, while the seventh finger hole provided a leading tone to the tonic.

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As a result, he has suggested that these flutes should be described as improved flageolets, and has proposed the condition that true recorders produce a tone rather than a semitone when the seventh finger is lifted. Controversy aside, there is little question that these instruments are at least precursors to later instruments that are indisputably recorders. Because there is sparse documentary evidence from the earliest history of the instrument, such questions may never be resolved.

Indeed, historically there was no need for an all inclusive definition that encompassed every form of the instrument past and present. Recorders with a cylindrical profile are depicted in many medieval paintings, however their appearance does not easily correspond to the surviving instruments, and may be stylized. Clara, Tortosa, now in the Museu Nacional d'Art de Catalunya, Barcelona, in which a group of angels play musical instruments around the Virgin Mary, one of them playing a cylindrical recorder. Starting in the Middle Ages, angels have frequently been depicted playing one or more recorders, often grouped around the Virgin, and in several notable paintings trios of angels play recorders.

This is perhaps a sign of the trinity, although the music must have often been in three parts. No music marked for the recorder survives from prior to Groups of recorder players or recorder playing angels, particularly trios, are depicted in paintings from the 15th century, indicating the recorder was used in these configurations, as well as with other instruments. Some of the earliest music must have been vocal repertory. Modern recorder players have taken up the practice of playing instrumental music from the period, perhaps anachronistically, such as the monophonic estampies from the Chansonnier du Roi 13th , Add MS 14th or 15th , or the Codex Faenza 15th , and have arranged keyboard music, such as the estampies from the Robertsbridge codex 14th , or the vocal works of composers like Guillaume de Machaut and Johannes Ciconia for recorder ensembles.

In the 16th century, the structure, repertoire, and performing practice of the recorder is better documented than in prior epochs. The recorder was one of the most important wind instruments of the Renaissance, and many instruments dating to the 16th century survive, including some matched consorts. Nonetheless, understanding of the instrument and its practice in this period is still developing. In the 16th century, the recorder saw important developments in its structure.

As in the recorders of the Middle Ages, the etiology of these changes remains uncertain, development was regional and multiple types of recorder existed simultaneously. Our knowledge is based on documentary sources and surviving instruments. Far more recorders survive from the Renaissance than from the Middle Ages. Most of the surviving instruments from the period have a wide, cylindrical bore from the blockline to the uppermost fingerhole, an inverted conical portion down to around the lowest finger hole the "choke" , then a slight flare to the bell.

Externally, they have a curved shape similar to the bore, with a profile like a stretched hourglass. Their sound is warm, rich in harmonics, and somewhat introverted. This type of recorder is described by Praetorius in De Organographia A surviving consort by "!! The range of this type is normally an octave plus a minor 7th, but as remarked by Praetorius and demonstrated in the fingering tables of Ganassi's Fontegara , [57] experienced players on particular instruments were capable of playing up to a fourth or even a seventh higher see Documentary evidence: treatises.

Their range is more suitable for the performance of vocal music, rather than purely instrumental music. This type is the recorder typically referred to as the "normal" Renaissance recorder, however this modern appellation does not fully capture the heterogeneity of instruments of the 16th century. Another surviving Renaissance type has a narrow cylindrical bore and cylindrical profile like the medieval exemplars but a choke at the last hole. The earliest surviving recorders of this type were made by the Rafi family, instrument makers active in Lyons in Southern France in the early 16th century.

Two recorders marked "C.

A consort of recorders or similar make, marked "P. Other recorders by the Rafi family survive in Northern Europe, notably a pair in Brussels. It is possible that Grece worked in the Rafi workshop, or was a member of the Rafi family. They have a relatively quiet sound with good pitch stability favoring dynamic expression. In , French author Philibert Jambe de Fer gave a set of fingerings for hybrid instruments like the Rafi and Grece instruments that give a range of two octaves. Here, the 15th was now produced, as on most later recorders, as a variant of the 14th instead of as the fourth harmonic of the tonic, as in Ganassi's tables.

The first two treatises of the 16th century show recorders that differ from the surviving instruments dating to the century: these are Sebastian Virdung 's b. Musica getutscht , and Martin Agricola 's — similar Musica instrumentalis deudsch , published in Basel and Saxony respectively. Musica Getutscht , the earliest printed treatise on western musical instruments, is an extract of an earlier, now lost, manuscript treatise by Virdung, a chaplain, singer, and itinerant musician.

The printed version was written in a vernacular form of Early New High German , and was aimed at wealthy urban amateur musicians: the title translates, briefly, as "Music, translated into German Everything there is to know about [music] — made simple. While the illustrations have been called "maddeningly inaccurate" and his perspectives quirky, [61] Virdung's treatise gives us an important source on the structure and performing practice of the recorder in northern Europe in the late 15th and early 16th centuries.

The recorders described by Virdung have cylindrical profiles with flat heads, narrow windows and long ramps, ring-like turnings on the feet, and a slight external flare at the bell above, far left and middle left. As previously mentioned, the accuracy of these woodcuts cannot be verified as no recorders fitting this description survive.

Virdung also provides the first ever fingering chart for a recorder with a range of an octave and a seventh, though he says that the bass had a range of only an octave and sixth. In his fingering chart, he numbers which fingers to lift rather than those to put down and, unlike in later charts, numbers them from bottom 1 to top 8. His only other technical instruction is that the player must blow into the instrument and "learn how to coordinate the articulations Martin Agricola's Musica instrumentalis Deudsch "A German instrumental music, in which is contained how to learn to play Agricola also calls the tenor "altus," mistakenly depicting it as a little smaller than the tenor in the woodcut above, middle right.

Like Virdung, Agricola takes it for granted that recorders should be played in four-part consorts. Unlike Getutscht , which provides a single condensed fingering chart, Agricola provides separate, slightly differing, fingering charts for each instrument, leading some to suppose that Agricola experimented on three different instruments, rather than copying the fingerings from one size to the other two.

The next treatise comes from Venice: Silvestro Ganassi dal Fontego's —mids Opera Intitulata Fontegara , which is the first work to focus specifically on the technique of playing the recorder, and perhaps the only historical treatise ever published that approaches a description of a professional or virtuoso playing technique.

Ganassi was a musician employed by the Doge and at the Basilica di San Marco at the time of the work's publication, and indication of his high level of accomplishment, and later wrote two works on the playing the viol and the violone, although he does not mention being employed by the Doge after Fontegara. Fontegara can be broadly divided into two parts: the first concerns the technique of playing the recorder, the second demonstrated divisions regole, passagi, ornaments , some of great complexity, which the player may use to ornament a melody or, literally, "divide" it into smaller notes.

In all aspects, Ganassi emphasizes the importance of imitating the human voice, declaring that "the aim of the recorder player is to imitate as closely as possible all the capabilities of the human voice", maintaining that the recorder is indeed able to do this. For Ganassi, imitation of the voice has three aspects: "a certain artistic proficiency," which seems to be the ability to perceive the nature of the music, prontezza dexterity or fluency , achieved "by varying the pressure of the breath and shading the tone by means of suitable fingering," and galanteria elegance or grace , achieved by articulation, and by the use of ornaments, the "simplest ingredient" of them being the trill, which varies according to the expression.

Ganassi gives fingering tables for a range of an octave and a seventh, the standard range also remarked by Praetorius, then tells the reader that he has discovered, through long experimentation, more notes not known to other players due to their lack of perseverance, extending the range to two octaves and a sixth.

Ganassi gives fingerings for three recorders with different makers marks, and advises the reader to experiment with different fingerings, as recorders vary in their bore. The makers mark of one of the recorders, in the form of a stylized letter "A", has been associated with the Schnitzer family of instrument makers in Germany, leading Hermann Moeck to suppose that Ganassi's recorder might have been Northern European in origin.

Ganassi uses three basic kinds of syllables te che , te re , and le re and also varies the vowel used with the syllable, suggesting the effect of mouth shape on the sound of the recorder. He gives many combinations of these syllables and vowels, and suggests the choice of the syllables according to their smoothness, te che being least smooth and le re being most so. He does not, however, demonstrate how the syllables should be used to music. Most of the treatise consists of tables of diminutions of intervals, small melodies and cadences, categorized by their meter.

These several hundred divisions use quintuplets, septuplets, note values from whole notes to 32nd notes in modern notation, and demonstrate immense variety and complexity. The frontispiece to Fontegara shows three recorder players play together with two singers. Like Agricola and Virdung, Ganassi takes for granted that recorders should be played in groups of four, and come in three sizes: F 3 , C 4 and G 4.

He makes a distinction between solo playing and ensemble playing, noting that what he has said is for solo players, and that when playing with others, it is most important to match them. Unfortunately, Ganassi gives only a few ornamented examples with little context for their use. Nonetheless, Ganassi offers a tantalizing glimpse at a highly developed professional culture and technique of woodwind playing that modern players can scarcely be said to have improved upon. Girolamo Cardano's also Jerome Cardan, — De Musica was written around , but not published until when it was published along with other works by Cardan, who was an eminent philosopher, mathematician and physician as well as a keen amateur recorder player who learned from a professional teacher, Leo Oglonus, as a child in Milan.

His account corroborates that of Ganassi, using the same three basic syllables and emphasizing the importance of breath control and ornamentation in recorder playing, but also documents several aspects of recorder technique otherwise undocumented until the 20th century.

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These include multiple techniques using the partial closing of the bell: to produce a tone or semitone below the tonic, and to change semitones into dieses half semitones , which he says can also be produced by "repercussively bending back the tongue". He is the first to differentiate between the amount of the breath full, shallow, or moderate and the force relaxed or slow, intense, and the median between them as well as the different amount of air required for each instrument, and describes a trill or vibrato called a vox tremula in which "a tremulous quality in the breath" is combined with a trilling of the fingers to vary the interval from anything between a major third and a diesis.

He is also the first writer to mention the recorder in D 5 "discantus" , which he leaves unnamed. Composer and singer Philibert Jambe de Fer c. He prefers fleute d'Italien or the Italian flauto. His fingering chart is notable for two reasons, first for describing fingerings with the 15th produced as a variant on the 14th, and for using the third finger of the lower hand as a buttress finger, although only for three notes in the lower octave.

Aurelio Virgiliano's "Il dolcimelo" c. The Syntagma musicum —20 of Michael Praetorius — in three volumes a fourth was intended but never finished is an encyclopedic survey of music and musical instruments. Praetorius was the first author to explain that recorders can confuse the ear into believing that they sound an octave lower than pitch, which phenomenon has more recently been explained in relation to the recorder's lack of high harmonics. Additionally, he proposed cutting the recorder between the beak and the first finger hole to allow for a kind of tuning slide to raise or lower its pitch, similar to the Baroque practice of adjusting a recorder's pitch by "pulling out" the top joint of the recorder.

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The recorders described in Praetorius are of the "stretched hourglass" profile see above, far right. He gives fingerings like those of Ganassi, and remarks that they normally have a range of an octave and a sixth, although exceptional players could extend that range by a fourth. Some paintings from the 14th and 15th centuries depict musicians playing what appear to be two end-blown flutes simultaneously.

In some cases, the two flutes are evidently disjoint, separate flutes of similar make, played angled away from each other, one pipe in each hand. In others, flutes of the same length have differing hand positions. In a final case, the pipes are parallel, in contact with each other, and differ in length. The identification of the instrument depicted is further complicated by the symbolism of the aulos , a double piped instrument associated with the satyr Marsyas of Greek mythology.

An instrument consisting of two attached, parallel, end-blown flutes of differing length, dating to the 15th or 16th century, was found in poor condition near All Souls College in Oxford. The instrument has four holes finger-holes and a thumb hole for each hand. The pipes have an inverted conical "choke" bore see Renaissance structure. Bob Marvin has estimated that the pipes played a fifth apart, at approximately C 5 and G 5.

Although the instrument's pipes have thumb holes, the lack of organological precedent makes classification of the instrument difficult. Marvin has used the terms "double recorder" and the categorization-agnostic flauto doppio double flute to describe the Oxford instrument.

Marvin has designed a flauto doppio based on the Oxford instrument, scaled to play at F 4 and C 5. Italian recorder maker Francesco Livirghi has designed a double recorder or flauto doppio with connected, angled pipes of the same length but played with different hand positions, based on iconographic sources.